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His maps and descriptions, particularly of the areas of Jalālābād and Hadda and of Bagrām, were pioneering contributions, although his “excavations” were unscientific (see his , Calcutta, 1841). Scientific exploration in Afghanistan began after September, 1922, when A. Short references are used for missions and institutions: AIA – Afghan Institute of Archaeology, Kabul. AUFS – American Universities Field Staff, Hanover, New Hampshire.
Excavations at this Kushan temple complex revealed the first concrete evidence for an indigenous Bactrian art and shed new light on the development of Gandharan art. Cardin) revealed the easternmost city of Greek culture yet known. Fairservis, when Šamšīr Ḡār and Deh Morāsī Ḡonday, 17 miles southwest of Qandahār, were investigated by L. This work provided the first Bronze Age data for the territory of Afghanistan. Trousdale explored for the Smithsonian Institution (1971-77). Ghirshman of DAFA investigated Tang-e Azāo, near Češt in Herat province (Frye, “An Epigraphical Journey in Afghanistan,” 1954, pp. Buddhological research attracted Japanese archeologists. The Kyoto University Scientific Mission to the Iranian Plateau and the Hindu Kush (S. C.: Open-air sites on terraces near a cave, Ḡār-e Gōsfand Morda, yielded flint implements. Ḡārlōlī, near Maymana; Fāryāb (AMNH, Dupree, 1969).
A further notable find occurred in 1963, when a large Corinthian capital was brought to DAFA’s attention. It bears, however, many distinctly oriental traits and speaks clearly of strong local rulers with syncretic tastes in architecture, art, and religion. Subsequent American research dealt principally with the prehistoric period. Coon discovered, in the rock-shelter at Qara Kamar, an Aurignacian Upper Paleolithic blade industry (ca. By the early 1950s, the emerging archeological evidence pointed to the importance of the Afghan area in the dissemination of Buddhism to Central Asia and thence eastward. Mizuno, director) arrived in 1959 to begin surveys and excavations at Lalma and Bāsawal (in the Jalālābād region), Taḵt-e Rostam and Hazār Som (near Aybak), and Dūrman Tapa, Čaqalaq Tapa, and Kondūz. The rock-shelter shows a regional Neolithic culture. Southern Sīstān; Nīmrūz (University of Pennsylvania, G. 3rd-2nd millennium: At Gardan Rēg the survey found pottery, beads, seals, pottery kilns of uncertain date, and a pre-Islamic copper furnace; some stone objects are identical to Tapa Ḥeṣār types ca.
Is MEO’s excavations reports, as well as other archeological studies, are published in its journal, .
Other important research in the Islamic period has included K.
Fischer’s direction of a comprehensive project in Sīstān (1968-73) under the auspices of Bonn University.
This has culminated in the publication of (Bonn, I, 1976, II, 1974). Although archeology is not regarded as a prestigious career in Afghanistan, some Afghan students have studied the subject in France and Italy. Mustamindy, after returning from Italy, opened the first Afghan-directed excavations in 1965 at Tapa Šotor (Hadda). DAFA – Delegation Archéologique Française en Afghanistan, Kabul. Is MEO – Instituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, Rome. Ālten, a series of Achaemenid period mounds northwest of Balḵ, provides new knowledge of the pre-Bactrian period and shows ties with the culture of Āy Ḵānom. The nearby Dašlī mounds form the first large Bronze Age complex to be extensively excavated in northern Afghanistan. The series of publications which record the Kyoto University findings are referred to in the survey, below.